And will prove that this method successful in dealing with facts personal revolt, at least in those cases in which revolt not an expression individual abnormality, pathological misadaptation the individual the fundamental conditions social life, but results from the development and growing popularization new needs. In a word, in far as disorganization a social process, not a fact individual pathology, an unavoidable stage social evolution and cannot remedied trying stop this evolution but directing Revolution thus the crucial test the methods social reconstruction any method which, even if succeeds in suppressing particular cases personal revolt, cannot prevent the appearance and development revolutionary attitudes in the sense defined above.
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It may useful in periods relative social stability but should rejected as soon as social unrest begins grow, for only retards the process reconstruction and contributes increase the chaos the intermediary period. Our study the revolutionary attitudes the french peasant will limited two fields class revolutionism and religious revolutionism.
For several reasons, cannot study here political revolutionism as manifested in the national uprisings the Poles against the partitioning states, particularly against Russia. Though within the period which are taking into account there was a national revolution partly connected with a social revolution, the latter was mostly supported city workmen and the peasants as a class participated in very little.
There has been, indeed, during this whole period a growing national revolutionary movement among the peasants which finally led their active participation in the last and successful struggle but the documents referring this movement were, for obvious reasons, kept secret all the time. What actually transpired and was accessible our investigation, was an increasing national consciousness manifesting itself in social organization and cultural cooperation.
But this side the national movement evidently belongs social reconstruction and will studied in the last chapter the present volume. The revolution would indeed, a very interesting object study but would absolutely incomprehensible without a thorough analysis the psychology the french factory workmen and their leaders, the economic and political conditions found in french industrial centers and many other problems which would lead far beyond the limits this work.
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We therefore introduce here only a few documents concerning this revolution illustrate some its effects the peasants class or religious attitudes The class system in the country was, as know, very rigid until recently, much more rigid than in cities.
This holds true not only Poland, but practically all Europe.
In particular, the distinction between the peasants and the gentry, the two oldest and most definitely fixed classes, has been maintained for many centuries, owing serfdom, that the present often appears the popular mind as in a sense rooted in the nature things the deep differences culture help at least as much as economic inequality maintain The growth intermediary elements ruined nobles, bourgeois settling land, wealthy or educated peasants and the contact with the new, different, more flexible social hierarchy which has developed in cities, have done much diminish this distinction and yet the latter until recently appeared the average peasant as the most striking feature that wider social order which his community was a part.
But if the class distinction during the last years remains essentially the same as before, class antagonism has certainly decreased in an incalculable measure since 'It research paper on sale should understood that our subject-matter revolutionary custom term paper attitudes, not revolutionary acts.
A revolutionary attitude which manifests itself in a vague dissatisfaction with existing conditions may more significant sociologically than one which expressed in an act overt rebellion if more general and lasting. the abolition serfdom. At the time which are here taking into account, buy custom term paper the opposition interests custom academic writing services between the peasant farmers college essay service and the large estate-owners reduced itself two points. The first was the question servitudes or the rights buy thesis online uk pasture peasant cattle manorial land and take dry wood from manorial forests, which was intentionally left unsettled the Russian government in order foment discord between the peasants and the nobility. The second was the more fundamental problem distribution land. The growth the country population has resulted in a division many peasant farms into lots below the minimum necessary for living, and in an enormous increase the number landless peasants, whereas there were yet many disproportionately large private estates the nobility, and vast territories which the Russian government had either appropriated after the partitions or confiscated after the revolutions. Now, the peasants have from immemorial times cherished the idea found in all agricultural communities that cultivated land should belong those who cultivate with their own hands while non-cultivated land nobody's property. In connection with this, know I that the desire for economic advance which developed among the peasants very powerfully during the second half the last century manifested itself chiefly in a general land-hunger which demanded satisfied any means. Naturally, therefore, the tendency take away and divide the estates the government and the nobility has been continually growing and the endowment peasants with land after the abolition serfdom was easily interpreted as a precedent. This tendency, sometimes formulated but usually concealed from the upper classes, was the most serious factor whatever class antagonism found between the manor-owner and the peasant farmer. Much deeper was the antagonism between the gentry and the landless peasants employed them as manorservants.