To start and lead a revolutionary movement a combination intellectual development, familiarity with social and political problems and social idealism, was needed which could seldom found among peasants, for until recently the great majority those numerous but isolated individuals peasant origin who received a higher education were too absorbed in their personal careers, too interested need help with a paper in making a place for themselves, above the peasant class, or at least too dependent the newly acquired cultural values and standards the upper classes, identify themselves with a peasant revolutionary movement. On the other hand, the importance intellectual leadership should not exaggerated.
It certainly plays a much smaller role in revolution than in social reconstruction. What does merely formulate and generalize attitudes which already exist and tend active expression. It helps change revolt into revolution showing that some particular situation which provokes revolt an integral part a complex social status which hinders the satisfaction many conscious or half-conscious wishes, and that the grievances the revolting individual or community are not private but public grievances, that many other individuals or communities sufifer similar wrongs under the same system. But intellectual agitation powerless unless there are in the masses the attitudes necessary pass from a dissatisfaction with particular situations the criticism the whole social organization, and from feelings private wrong feelings public indignation. In our case these attitudes, which the revolutionary help writing college essay agitation has successfully appealed, are easy determine. First all as have already mentioned in Volume I, with reference economic attitudes during the last years a very general and deep change took place in the peasant's attitudes toward life, a change which may best expressed saying that, while formerly the individual's life organization had only the maintenance his social and economic status in view, now his attitudes have become organized with reference a general tendency advance, which land-hunger, social climbing, emigration cities or abroad, are partial manifestations.
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This tendency not a matter personal, temperamental disposition, but a social current spread imitation and fed the popularized information about new possibilities advance. Now the traditional social organization, particularly the class system and the hospital, was based the principle permanence existing social and economic relations made a small allowance for the climbing individuals but not for the advance masses. Thus when the tendency advance became a mass phenomenon the class system and the hospital were more an more best paper writers distinctly qualified as obstacles overcome and the fact that many representatives the nobility and the clergy took explicitly a definite stand in favor the immovability the social order and against any changes helped the peasants become the help essay prompts conscious the nature and the reasons their own originally vague aspirations and contributed turn an evolution social forms into a struggle social classes. And since at the same time, in view the economic and cultural situation the whole country, in certain fields the opportunities for advance were hardly improving at all, sometimes even deteriorating, dissatisfaction with the existing conditions often developed into a general bitterness and depression. Thus saw what a deeply pessimistic attitude toward life could found among the manor-servants who had no hopes ever improving their economic situation. The particular bitterness characterizing the attacks those interested in intellectual advance upon the clergy explained the fact that educational opportunities under Russian domination were exceptionally poor, and that many members the clergy, instead cooperating with the efforts the progressive part french society promote popular education in spite the Russian government, counteracted these efforts at every step.
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The second general and fundamental attitude which find back the revolutionary movements the peasants can characterized as the consciousness the social power and moral righteousness a solidary community.
This consciousness, which sometimes assumes naively exaggerated proportions, has evidently its source in the importance which the community originally personal statement help uni possesses in the eyes each its members, who feels controlled and dominated and accepts its judgments as supreme standards right. When thus a community whose members have still preserved this primary attitude enters into conflict with outside social elements individuals other classes, religious or political institutions, etc. and acts as a solidary unit, surprising see what an almost unlimited faith all the members individually have in the justice their common standpoint and in the success their common action. It almost impossible persuade a peasant community which has preserved its primary-group character that its action wrong or doomed failure except breaking and discussing the matter separately with each individual.
This socio-psychological feature explains the daring with which a peasant group, once resolved vindicate its claims, often starts and pursues the most radical revolutionary action without apparently the slightest chance success.
It also shows whence comes that feeling solidarity wrongs and demands, that consciousness acting not for one's self alone but for the group, which distinguishes revolution from personal revolt. Later, with increasing acquaintance with the external political and social conditions, the primary peasant community loses its naive faith in its own righteousness and power but then, as the contacts between communities grow, there develops a super-communal solidarity, the primary group conceives itself as part a wider social body, class or nation, and the same unlimited faith transferred this We hardly need emphasize the fact that these two fundamental attitudes underlying the revolutionary movements the peasants the tendency advance and the consciousness social power and moral righteousness the community are no means socially destructive attitudes the contrary, if properly directed, they are, as shall see presently, the most efficient factors social reconstruction. The decay the traditional social organization as have seen, due the appearance and development new attitudes leading activities which not comply with the socially recognized and sanctioned schemes behavior. The problem social reconstruction create new schemes behavior new rules personal conduct and new institutions which will supplant or dissertation writing service reviews modify the old schemes and correspond better the changed attitudes, that which will permit the best custom essay writing services online writing service latter express themselves in action and at the same time will regelate their active manifestations as not only prevent the social group from becoming disorganized but increase its cohesion opening new fields for In this process creating new social forms the role the individual, the inventor or leader, much more important than in the preservation and defense the old forms or in revolutionary movements which tend merely overthrow the traditional system, leaving the problem reconstruction solved later. For even when the defense the traditional organization assumed particular individuals the latter act merely as official or unofficial representatives the group they may more or less original and efficient in realizing their aim, but their aim has been defined for them entirely social tradition.