Superiority social position a source prestige even independently any actual power which the superior class may or may not possess. However, evident that this kind prestige not very secure in periods rapid social evolution, since apt impaired any mistakes which other individual members the given profession or class can make and which are easily generalized as characterizing the whole group.
Thus, find that with the development social consciousness among the peasants the prestige which the individual acquires personally as his own particular self more and more clearly distinguished from and even opposed the old group prestige the profession or class disparaged contrast with its particular member and the latter exalted contrast with his class.
Moreover, when the leader relies the prestige his profession or class forced keep the traditions and uphold the esprit corps which this profession or class tries maintain its prestige, and this evidently limits his initiative.
Finally, purely individual prestige has a much greater influence the masses because the particular and well known attraction which everything personal has for the popular mind. essay writers canada For all these reasons, see that the expansion the sphere influence a popular leader in social reconstruction goes along with a gradual decrease those sides his public personaHty in which his profession, class, etc.
are manifested, that the most important leaders like Jackowski or Wawrzyniak can hardly characterized as doctors or noblemen, but simply as individuals, each as a unique personality. But for this very reason impossible make any generalizations concerning the nature and sources this purely individual prestige the characteristic features which make a leader popular may entirely dif ferent in each particular case. Of course, the leader must judged efficient in his line and must supposed well-intentioned with regard his followers. But precisely the baffling point about leadership prestige that the judgment the mass as the efficiency and good intentions their leader depend upon the prestige which already possesses, and that no proofs real efficiency, sincerity and honesty can give a man prestige unless, for reasons which vary thesis statement help from case case, his personality happens become the center benevolent public attention. For prestige not the result a rational judgment each member the group individually about the leader as but the complex product a half-intellectual, half emotional attitude each member the group toward the leader as seen other members the subject prestige not the individual as an active personality but the picture this individual drawn public opinion.
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It clear that the peasant class constitutes a very favorable ground for the development leadership prestige as long as peasant communities preserve their character primary groups whose members are used think in social terms and are dependent public opinion for their ideas and appreciations.
This a very propitious circumstance for social reconstruction, for permits the leaders put into eflfect, virtue their prestige, constructive plans whose objective significance only imperfectly understood their unprepared followers. In fact, since the very preparation for a new social organization requires social organization and the masses learn fully understand new social ideals and institutions only in the course their gradual realization, the process social reconstruction could not start if the suggestions the leaders had fully understood and appreciated their own merits their followers before being realized in action the prestige the leaders, at a certain stage social evolution, gives the new and undeveloped social forms that motive power without which the inertia the masses could But with the progressing individualization, intellectual development, and critical ability the peasants, leadership prestige gradually gives place leadership efficiency, in which an individual assumes essay proofreading services the leading role because and in far as considered more efficient than others because his ideas and suggestions are judged morally or practically right and are accepted others their own merits after reflection or practical test. This evolution naturally occurs sooner in those fields in which the peasant's judgment less dependent tradition and public opinion, in which better able define situations rationally from the standpoint a proper adaptation the means the end, instead defining them from the standpoint their accordance with traditional rules. V hus, see leadership efficiency developing much faster in economic cooperation than in education or politics.
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It also evident that the less prestige a leader possesses, the more easily the criteria efficiency are applied the activities which suggests. This explains the fact that sometimes the work great leaders decays after their retirement they have carried social reconstruction beyond the point where should taken minor leaders growing from the masses.
On the contrary, social reconstruction which carried many leaders with relatively little prestige slower but has an The movement for the education the peasants began in Poland in the middle the eighteenth century, in connection with the general movement for national reorganization and under the partial influence French rationalism and the cheapest assignment writing service enlightenment ideal. The peasant had gradually prepared need to write an essay in one day for freedom and active participation in political life, and public education was the all-powerful method preparation. The wide system public schools established the Educational Commission between gave free access peasant children, and many nobles, in order encourage education, granted freedom every serf who learned read and write. This development was interrupted the partitions. Under Russian domination in particular the conditions public education grew from bad worse, that in the beginning the nineteenth century the proportion children in public schools relatively the number the population was smaller half than a hundred years before. The schools were not only few but poorly equipped the teachers, mostly sent from Russia, were ignorant and inefficient. Besides, the school was used as an instrument Russification.