They occur in groups which either lack organization entirely like a city crowd or whose organization in a sense, temporarily suspended, has ceased work for a time as in a community struck a sudden panicprovoking event they are purposeless, have no general aim which the present action subordinated. But the cases lynching which find in peasant communities are performed groups in which the traditional organization still strong and vital they are the product deliberation, sometimes prepared for a long time ahead they have a very definite general purpose, popularly expressed as cleansing the community. Finally, in the eyes every member the community they are morally justified none the individuals who participated in them feels that was acting under momentary excitement but each considers his action as rational and repeated if necessary.
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Thus, lynching in peasant communities appears as a rather primitive, but fully conscious method struggle against disorganization. It must realized, course, that the conditions under which lynching develops in french peasant communities are quite particular and not permit draw any need help writing paper general conclusions as whether lynching an original means repression in primary groups or not. The peasant community was forced centuries ago surrender most its judicial and executive functions other social agencies whose activities had little or no influence.
Since, when Russia definitively took over all help writing a comparison and contrast essay administration and jurisdiction in the Congress Kingdom, the performance these functions has been particularly unsuccessful owing the inefficiency and dishonesty Russian officials. At the same time, peasant communities, owing the recent economic independence acquired the peasants, began develop a feeling their own importance which manifested itself very custom admission essay clearly during the period.
And as during this period the Russian police, absorbed in a fight against the revolutionists, neglected more than ever its duties with regard crime, many communities took the matter into their own hands. And, course, as they had none the elaborate means repression at their disposal which a state can use, lynching was inevitably resorted just for similar reasons, individuals in weakened communities resort But if thus the conditions in which lynching appeared were rather exceptional, the i need help with a persuasive essay social attitudes manifested in these acts were essentially the same which always and everywhere constitute the psychological basis social repression anti-social behavior indeed, find there the whole psychology retributive justice. And if study these cases in connection with their social background, find that seemingly similar acts repression have an entirely different significance when performed upon outsiders and when their object a member the group. In the first case, when the offender an who can i pay to write my essay outsider and the victim a member the community or the community as a whole, the reaction the latter essentially retributive and preventive, with an attempt exact damages. When the offender a member the community these attitudes may also exist in some measure, particularly if the community partly broken into fragments, each which acts as a separate group that wants revenge its wrongs and intimidate aggression.
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But long as the solidarity the community strong these are not the attitudes which determine the policy the group as a whole with reference the offending member. What the community interested in more than in revenge, more than in prevention future offences, speak, the annihilation the anti-social act which has been performed some device which will permit consider the crime as not having occurred within its limits.
Of course these ideas are not formulated in these terms in the consciousness the group, but this fundamental attitude manifests itself not only in those acts repression which are studying, but also in innumerable and various expressions regret, shame, reproach, etc. Something parallel found in the religious ideas sin and the various methods which past sins are wiped out.
In the peasant community the sources this attitude are probably several. There may some vestige the old notion common magical responsibility there certainly an unreasoned remnant the mediaeval fear common political responsibility, in some cases revived the stand taken Russian governmental officials with regard communities in which a crime, and more particularly a political offence, has been committed there the feeling shame for the group before its neighbors.
In addition this, there probably also the dissatisfaction with the very fact that the traditional principles have been broken, rooted ultimately in the desire for security and the feeling that a rule which has been broken has lost some its reliability. The community hates the very idea that a break has occurred, and there an intense and frequently voiced consciousness a stain removed. This the attitude which gives the action lynching a member or any other similar performance, its social justification in the eyes every member the group and raises such an action above the level personal revenge or personal fear. By treating the offender as an enemy the group actively manifests its solidarity against him, disowns him and his crime, tends treat him as if had never been a member and treat the crime as if had been performed outside the community. The stain removed and the traditional system reasserted as unbroken. If, the contrary, any leniency shown the malefactor, there remains a more or less distinct consciousness in the group that this leniency implies a solidarity with him and his crime, and find communities reproaching each other for not having reacted solidarily and violently enough against some offences which were committed perhaps All methods exclusion or punishment represent, however, the lowest stage the technique social selfdefense against disorganization, for they tend merely free the community individuals who have proved unfit its members and dangerous the preservation the traditional system, while the main problem how adapt or readapt these individuals the community making them define in the future their situations in accordance with the rules left untouched.