It possesses a french teachers seminary, large schools, smaller schools, houses for students, people's houses, reading rooms with loan During the past year, children received french instruction in the schools and, readers used the libraries, persons attended, lectures held in all the districts under the auspices the Association new libraries were founded with, volumes costing.
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crowns. crowns were spent in supplementing the already existing libraries, volumes were sold for.
crowns, were edited under the management the association.
The total income the association for the past year was.
crowns, crowns pay for someone to write your paper Although the activity the association extended over Galicia chiefly, nevertheless remains in continuous connection with the Russian french provinces, since supplies french libraries there with books and financial support. The various college essay services attitudes the peasants toward education have an almost unparalleled sociological interest, for each them can found in all societies and all stages cultural evolution. However wide may seem the difference culture between the legislative body a modern state, ignoring or taking into account the problem endowment scientific research, and a peasant village, refusing or agreeing subscribe popular papers between a wealthy business man despising all intellectual work which does not bring immediate practical results, and a peasant woman scolding her husband for his seemingly useless reading between a scientist working his way, in spite material obstacles and social indifference or hostility some great discovery, and a peasant boy struggling with poverty and the opposition his social milieu for a minimum instruction between the trustees a university who fear the destructive effect science public paraphrasing powerpoint morals, and an old peasant who claims that knowledge reading and writing leads hell, the fundamental attitudes are The general unwillingness with which a conservative peasant group usually greets the appearance intellectual interests in any one its members can probably best explained its aversion individualization in any form.
A man who reads in a non-reading community has interests which the community does not share, ideas which differ from those others, information which others cannot obtain isolates himself in some measure from his environment, lives partly in a sphere which inaccessible others and what worse strange and unknown them thus, in certain respects breaks away from social control.
The situation aggravated the fact that learning has been associated with other social classes.
There may perhaps also some remnant the mediaeval attitude toward book-lore as having magical connections, either divine or devilish thus praying from a book in hospital highly considered even in communities which are otherwise most averse education. When intellectual interests cease an exception and begin shared an appreciable part the community, the feeling strangeness disappears. But the conservative part the group often continues look askance the spread instruction, for the latter seems them imply indefinite possibilities change, threaten a partial or total dissolution the traditional social system, and thus arouses opposition from the standpoint the desire for security.
It not strange, therefore, if an average member a conservative peasant community, knowing what reaction expect from his environment, not easily induced become a paper-man or book-worm, unless has been already made partly independent social opinion. And even without social pressure, there not much in learning which appeals his traditional attitudes enough justify in his eyes the effort necessary for its acquisition. His average curiosity satisfied the traditional channels personal intercourse with news-bearers and wise men whose information can apply old and known standards and whom therefore often more willing believe than papers i need help with writing an essay and bodks, which require standards unknown him. He does not see how could apply knowledge the practical questions which interest him, for this applivcation would mean in most cases a radical change his traditional methods which not prepared face.
In general, as long as satisfied with the old type life there no inducement for him in new intellectual values. The development intellectual interests closely connected with the breakdown the isolation the peasant-community and the consequent disorganization the old system. The growing contact with the outside world develops in individuals a desire for new experience, and the paper or the book welcomed both as a partial essay writting services substitute for real new experiences when the field the latter limited circumstances, the help essays and as a means which the individual can get at least indirectly in touch with men and M'ith possibilities beyond the narrow circle his primary-g oup life. Both motives are particularly strong in young people, where find the tendency education often asserting itself without any explicit encouragement or even against discouraging influences. And the same break isolation which rouses the desire for new experience in individuals weakens also the opposition the group the intellectual interests its members have seen in a preceding chapter how the sphere privacy allowed the individual increases when the group no longer able attain a perfect community interests and identity attitudes. But this spontaneous appearance intellectual interests in particular individuals and the decrease the tendency repress them in the group were not sufficient spread popular education under such political conditions as existed in Poland. It was indispensable develop positive appreciation intellectual values in peasant communities as have social opinion encourage every individual effort in this line. This has been done in two ways giving intellectual developr ment a moral significance and emphasizing the practical applicability knowledge in connection with economic advance.