Small groups such enlightened peasants scattered through the country but concentrated means indirect communication around some leaders acting through the popular press have constituted a continually growing nucleus the wider community with which, through various direct personal bonds, an increasing circle the population was more or less closely associated.
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As a matter fact, at the period which are investigating there were in the Congress Kingdom several such nuclei separated political differences but partly connected the cooperation their members in various social institutions.
The most important were the moderate group which the chief organ was the newspaper Swiqteczna and the radical progressive group the Zaranie. Occasional personal contacts between the members and the leaders, and between members belonging different primary communities added a character intimacy the informal organization these groups. Their external structure was similar that political parties, but their sphere interest was much wider, for included practically everything custom writing companies in which the peasant was supposed interested.
In this respect they resembled primary communities and differed from other types secondary groups which are always more or less The method which the feeling moral solidarity was spread among the members the wider community was calculated develop the idealistic elements their nature appealing their feeling personal impor'tance, and vice versa. It was assumed as self-evident that all those who belonged the nucleus the wider community should actively interested in its welfare and progress, should the first in spreading education, in contributing common professional essay editing service aims, in promoting new and more efficient forms economic activity, in establishing new social institutions, in fostering harmonious social cooperation in best writing services short, in helping raise the whole peasant class a higher cultural level. And the other hand, all those who actively participated in the work social reconstruction were considered belonging the select minority as real collaborators the leaders they were treated as the advance guard progress, as a kind aristocracy whose prestige was based not their social function in the past but their importance At the same time, though perhaps less successfully, attempts were made impart a new moral vitality the old religious idea a wide german community whose members owed one another disinterested help independent any direct social contact between them. It hardly surprising that this idea did not have much practical significance for the peasant in the past. His economic conditions made him much oftener the object than the subject assistance, and even when was able help, his primary-group had claims all his altruism.
Moreover, the clergy the exclusive emphasis put purely religious matters reduced the duties the german community praying for one another and making collections for new hospitals. Of course, as the few documents referring these activities show, even this type mutual help implies altruistic emotions which can developed and extended other fields, but this development in far as actually occurred was mostly the work lay leaders. The most efficient way stirring altruistic tendencies has proved the appeal sympathetic emotions at public meetings when the susceptibility emotional suggestions, higher than usual, particularly in primary-group members, and the whole matter leaves a deeper impression. Calamities which befell particular communities fire, hunger, flood evidently found the easiest response, and more important than the actual help oflfered was the attitude which was developed such response and which could write my essay for me cheap later utilized for other constructive purposes. An interesting point that, partly as a consequence this method appealing whole primarygroups for assistance, partly because the individual peasant could but little in the line altruistic help instant paper writer outside his village or parish, this type solidarity assumed the form obligation mutual assistance between primary communities rather than between individuals, whereas the organization best essay website for cultural progress was, as have seen, essentially individualistic. This inter-communal solidarity in which the primary-group acts as a unit has not received perhaps all the attention deserves and not being developed sufficiently. For the peasant primary-group not definitely breaking only being reconstructed new foundations.
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The wider community will thus always not only an organization individuals but also an agglomeration college papers for sale primary-groups, and its unity cannot complete unless each these groups as a whole not alone through its individual members actively interested The organization a social group would perfect if all the attitudes its members could find a socially sanctioned institutional expression, that none would act as a factor disorganization, and if the institutions did not interfere with one another.
The first condition neglected both conservatists and revolutionists the former hindering the creation new institutions force new attitudes into socially dangerous channels the latter, tending destroy entirely the old institutions, ignore the old attitudes which persist and thus prepare a reaction.
And, course, there has never yet been any social organization which did not leave some social attitudes without institutional sanction classifying them as abnormal, anti-social, immoral, etc. As the second condition, has hardly ever received adequate consideration, for if except the unsuccessful attempts construct perfectly rational state systems, the institutions any concrete society grow without any common leading principle and thus continually. hamper and counteract one another. In studying the process reconstruction french peasant communities, shall keep in mind these criteria, since the reconstruction has been here conscious and planful, actually aiming at the best possible social organization. And thus important learn how far has been successful. Of course the new system far from ready reconstruction has only begun, many peasant communities are almost untouched the new movement, many new attitudes have not yet found institutional expression and regulation in any community finally not know yet how war and later the organization a french state have affected the whole process.