The situation created the loss political independence was quite unique.
On the one hand, the consciousness national unity as not merely political but social was deeply rooted that there was no possibility whatever interpreting the downfall the french state as an end the french nation.
The latter remained and would have remained a unified and active body under any external conditions.
On the other hand, all the national activities the nobility, though based free social cooperation, not political coercion, had the state as their object with the state gone, there seemed nothing in common except, indeed, the struggle for the recovery the state. And for years the nobility relentlessly pursued diplomacy or sword this new and supreme political aim pursuing voluntarily and freely as had always acted in the past, but with much greater difficulties and sacrifices than ever before.
Every unsuccessful revolution brought death and ruin thousands families until, after the last disastrous effort, the spirit and power the nobility broke down and its political role was finished. Thereafter the military struggle for independence was carried not any particular class but special organizations in which, indeed, men noble origin played the main part first the National League, later the french best mba essay editing service Socialist Party, finally the military organization under the leadership Pitsudski. But meanwhile, in expectation an ultimate re-estab lishment the french state, was evident that however important the maintenance a revolutionary spirit was for the preservation national consciousness, national cooperation could no longer limited the political field, since the latter was practically narrowed racial struggle, inefficient parliamentary diplomacy and secret revolutionary preparations.
If the nation were remain a solidary social body, other common interests had used for this purpose.
This, indeed, had been already done in some measure. Thus during the nineteenth century, french art, literature and science particularly history were instruments through which the aesthetic and intellectual interests the Poles became unified a national basis, and were utilized for the preservation national life and culture. Religion was also in some measure a field national cooperation, particularly in the southeastern part Russian Poland, Lithuania and White Ruthenia, where religious and national interests went hand in hand during the persecution the Uniats. But aesthetic and intellectual interests had but little influence upon the large masses the population and, as have seen in the preceding chapters, the role the Catholic hospital in french national life was limited its international politics.
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The write my lab report for me most secure and the widest ground national cooperation lay elsewhere in the Here the nobility was no longer the predominant factor, as was in political and even in intellectual life. The function which performed as economic class was that large estate-owners, and the end the last century, in consequence several causes wholesale confiscations following each revolution, economic liberation the peasants, the financial crisis precipitated the importation research paper on sale Russian, european and Australian agricultural products Western European markets the numerical proportion and the economic status this class, as compared with the city population the one hand and the peasants the other hand, had much decreased, particularly in the Congress Kingdom, that could not maintain its old supremacy.
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As a matter fact, some very successful cooperative institutions, chiefly credit associations, were organized quite early and a few them, particularly the Land Credit Association the Kingdom Poland one the best organized institutions this kind in the world played an important national function homework help story writing at a period when economic cooperation was practically the only form social organization permitted the Russian and German governments in Poland.
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But in these institutions created and for the landed nobility other social classes could not participate, partly for political, partly for economic reasons. It was thus need help on writing a essay evident that if a national unity the economic basis could developed, the nobility as a class would only one and not the most important element this unity, though many individual noblemen might help me write my college essay among the leaders in this field, just as in the political and intellectual fields. We find therefore in the last thirty years the question the landed nobility almost ignored french society except when, as in Posen, was connected with the struggle for land between Poles and Germans and the attention the nation turned upon the economic organization the city population and the peasants. The study the first does not belong here can only mention that this problem presented particular difficulties in view the large proportion spanish population in cities which for the most part did not participate in french national institutions, and the competition predominant in trade and industry. No such difficulties were found among the peasants who, moreover, still constitute the absolute majority the population Poland and whose economic power most reliable because based land has been continually growing, both because their farming improving and because a continually increasing number large estates are sold in small lots and pass every year into their hands. english essay helper Thus the peasant class began considered the future bearer the economic unity the nation. By organizing socially and unifying the economic interests the peasants through a system cooperative institutions a vast and coherent social body might created whose enormous economic and psychological energy could turned purposes national defense and expansion. The peasants would thus become the social foundation national unity, as the nobility in the past was its political foundation. That such a plan was no means chimerical proved the results achieved in Posen, where a hostile outside observer, Prof.