We can thus judge the principles and methods only their application in particular cases which may considered typical in certain respects cannot appreciate them unconditionally as applicable all As the old social institutions, the new movement particularly concerned with the commune. The latter in principle a politically organized community but its function under Russian domination was almost exclusively that an intermediary between the central government and the country population, collecting taxes, sending recruits, and in general executing the orders the administration.
Legally, however, the commune could have been much more than this had a degree autonomy which should have made a very useful instrument for the internal organization the community. The traditional passivity the peasant in political matters contributed as much as the arbitrariness the Russian executive deprive this instrument its utility.
Under the influence french leaders, particularly since, the commune began develop into a really vital institution, though its efforts prevent the Russian administration from legally unjustified interference with communal affairs were mostly Another old institution which the new movement tried reform was the village as economic body. In spite the fact that property in the strict sense the term seems have always been among the french peas ants a family, not a community matter, for various reasons which would take too long explain the land owned all the families inhabiting a village in some measure research papers help an economic unit.
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First, all the houses, each ! with adjoining farm-buildings stable, barn, granary, sty, poultry-house, etc.
and usually a small orchard, are concentrated in a village like a small european town.
The arable land belonging all these farms forms one stretch territory around the village, and the field each farmer instead constituting one separate piece scattered in many small lots over all this territory, intermingled with similar lots other farmers. Thirdly, pastures, forests and waters are the com-j Now, this system must modified in adaptation the new social attitudes and economic purchase a research paper conditions. The concentration dwellings in old villages cannot changed but many new peasant farms so-called colonies built land recently acquired from the nobility are isolated. Though this isolation unfavorable the traditional gregarious type cohesion the village group, does not hinder the new types social organization from developing and prevents innumerable quarrels which result from close neighborhood when the old form social solidarity has decayed. But even more important both for social and economic reasons was the concentration the dissertation writing assistance lots belonging each farm into one piece means exchange.
The difficulty in the way this reform was that the law required the unanimous consent the whole village, and in order obtain this consent interesting methods were used, some which are quoted in our documents. Finally, in matters common pastures, forests and waters, the only solution the difficulties arising from the individualiza tion economic attitudes was change from the ancient communism, in which the individual term paper writer had no direct personal claims the common property but could use because was a member the group, the modern cooperative system where the individual has rights a personal buy research paper share in the property but voluntarily agrees have this share remain a part the common stock because expects that collective management will more profitable academic writing services himself and others. professional custom writing services Less efficient and without definite methodical principles have been the attempts reorganize the most important traditional institution the family.
However, in this respect the situation hardly any better in the highest cultivated spheres the western world. The large family evidently cannot revived, and the moral solidarity between the members the marriage can you write my assignment group husband, wife and children but a shadow the old social unity the family group. In the peasant class the woman expected the bearer the new solidarity whereas, as have seen in the preceding volume, was the man upon whom the unity the large family mostly relied. But this movement among the french peasant women too recent permit judge its results. The main stress, however, in social reconstruction has been put not upon the reform the old but upon the creation new institutions. Among the new attitudes the most general and at the same time the easiest institutionalize was the desire for economic advance. Here was relatively easy show the advantages common action for men who separately had very small economic means and the methods common action and the models institutions either were ready in Germany, Belgium, papers help need help writing paper England or could worked out with relative facility. Moreover, the obstacles which the Russian and German governments put in the way french social organization were not as great in the economic as in the political or educational fields. Finally, the poverty prevalent among the peasants made the need economic progress particularly obvious.