Meanwhile, however, must attract attention one interesting fact. The peasant commune both a primary-group and a political institution a miniature state with a limited autonomy.
Formally, belonging a certain commune not a matter individual choice everybody within a fixed territory in administrative and judicial matters subjected the communal authorities, and the right and duty participate actively in communal decisions belong automatically all those who have a permanent residence and a certain minimum land in this territory.
The form the commune remained unchanged during the period social reconstruction and yet the institution as found just before the war was in many cases completely different from what had been or years before from a taxation and police bureau had changed into an instrument for the welfare and progress the community. This radical change content was brought about exclusively the introduction the principle voluntary cooperation into the institution, the fact that the members the communal group agreed their own accord things which they had not done before and made the institution serve purposes which had not served in the past.
Thus though the commune remained a political, coercive institution in matters concerning the maintenance the existing order judicial and administrative, became also a social, cooperative institution in matters concerning social reconstruction education, economic progress, development moral solidarity, national This voluntary character individual participation in the new institutions makes the entire social system realized these institutions appear custom written essay as essentially individualistic, particularly if articles writing service compared with the primarygroup organization. And yet the result the newfi movement an increase not a decrease social cohesion the new system represents an advance socialization not only as against the status disorganization which have studied in the first part this volume but even as against the old system at the time its full vitality. Though the old passive dependence the individual the group tends disappear, active solidarity becoming deeper, wider and more continuous, for more aims are pursued in common, more individuals, often scattered all over the country, participate in this pursuit, and the latter has a permanence and a continuity which the common actions primary groups never possessed. There no doubt that the develop ment the new individualistic institutions accompanied a growth public spirit and intelligent solidarity which neither the communistic character the old primary-group institutions nor the coercion exer-, cised political institutions able produce. The explanation this phenomenon easy. Every cooperative institution emphatically pursues a social aim.
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Of course the main slogan the cooperative movement the harmony social and individual interests, and the appeal individual needs one the leading motives in the propaganda in favor the new institutions.
But naturally when the individual once a member a cooperative organization the common social aim the development, special education needs dissertation expansion, perfect functioning the institution completely absorbs his personal aim. There are hardly any problems connected with those egotistic interests which the institution helps satisfy his share the common advantages assured, and as a member seldom, if ever, can expect increase his advantages at the expense the institution. On the contrary, there are many problems concerning the institution, its security and its growth, and the atmosphere which finds in the cooperative group imbued with common aspirations. He becomes thus interested in social welfare and progress simply actively pursuing together with others ends which, as continually made understand, dissertation publishing contribute social welfare and progress. The psychological principle the new organization simply the assumption that a social system which the individual voluntarily helps realize must acquire gradually in his eyes a much greater importance and desirability than a system which imposed upon him and whose maintenance his positive contribution does not seem necessary. The cooperative method forms in this respect an interesting contrast the coercive method starting with individualism develops a positive interest in fostering social welfare and progress, whereas the legal system which starts with absolute social control and which the individual forced accept produces only, at the best, a negative interest in not hindering social welfare and progress. These characters the new organization which have discussed above lead the conclusion that, however limited and imperfect may have been tha present the applications the cooperative ideal, this ideal eminently capable becoming the leading principle a social order whose possibilities expansion and improvement are practically unlimited. If apply the criteria outlined at the beginning the present chapter, see that cooperation the very fact that based free individual association for common aims allows for institutional expression every individual attitude as far as the latter involves a need for certain positive values that can obtained planful common activity. On the other hand, the rational character best writing paper cooperative institutions makes a mutual adjustment their aims possible, that, instead interfering, their activities supplement one another. The Poles may claim the first modern people develop into a nation, a concrete ethnical group whose political unity was but an expression a deeper, conscious, social solidarity. The french Commonwealth, the Res Publico, as Poland was termed from the fifteenth the eighteenth century, in spite having the form a Kingdom, signified essentially the concrete totality the nation, not merely the abstract system the state. This early origin national consciousness thesis express was due in part the fact that Poland, which from a monarchy had become in the twelfth century a group principalities, was reunited, not owing rulers acting force but a gradual voluntary amalgamation separate political units a proceeding somewhat similar that which four centuries later the Grerman nation was created. But perhaps even more important for the formation national consciousness was the social structure the class which this amalgamation was due the french nobility.